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Broadband Internet Access Service Provider Plans

DSL

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DSL, xDSL or ADSL is a family of technologies that provide digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. DSL originally stood for digital subscriber loop, although in recent years, many have adopted digital subscriber line as a more marketing-friendly term for the most popular version of consumer-ready DSL, ADSL.

Typically, the download speed of consumer DSL services ranges from 256 kilobits per second (kbit/s) to 24,000 kbit/s, depending on DSL technology, line conditions and service level implemented. Typically, upload speed is lower than download speed for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and equal to download speed for Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL).

Essentially, DSL connections work by splitting up a single phone line into two 'bands'. The ISP data runs without interference from the phone data using only the high frequencies. The user typically installs a DSL filter on each of the phones which filters those out from the phone, so that the phone only uses or hears the lower frequencies. This creates two completely independent 'bands', allowing the high frequencies to be used by the DSL simultaneously with the phone line without interfering.

Cable

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Cable internet access
The term cable Internet access refers to the delivery of Internet service over this infrastructure. The proliferation of cable modems, along with DSL technology, has enabled broadband Internet access in many countries.

Bandwidth of business cable modem service typically range from 3 Megabits per second (Mbit/s) up to 30 Mbit/s or more. The upstream bandwidth on residential cable modem service usually ranges from 384 Kilobits per second (kbit/s) to 6 Mbit/s or more. There are few attempts to offer different service tiers beyond the traditional 'home' and 'business' designations.

There are two potential disadvantages to cable internet:

Like all residential broadband network technologies (e.g. DSL, FTTX, Satellite internet, WiMAX), a fixed amount of bandwidth is shared by a population of users (in the case of cable internet, users in a neighborhood share the available bandwidth provided by a single coaxial cable line). Therefore, connection speed can vary depending on how many people are using the service at the same time. This arrangement allows the network operator to take advantage of statistical multiplexing in order to provide an adequate level of service at an acceptable price. However, the operator has to monitor usage patterns, and scale the network appropriately, to ensure that customers receive adequate service even during peak usage times.

Many cable Internet providers are reluctant to offer cable modem access without tying it to a cable television subscription. They do this by charging higher rates, say $40/month for cable modem only access, than if one bundles it with a cable TV plan where it might be $30/month for cable modem service plus $20/month for cable TV service. This has ramifications similar to those of the lack of naked DSL. However, some cable internet access providers who resell access from cable companies, such as Earthlink, are generally not subject to these higher rates.

Satellite

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Satellite Internet services are used in locations where terrestrial Internet access is not available and in locations which move frequently. Internet access via satellite is available worldwide, including vessels at sea and mobile land vehicles. There are three types of satellite Internet service:

one-way multicast,
one-way with terrestrial return, and
very small aperture terminal (VSAT) (two-way) satellite access.

One-way multicast
One-way multicast satellite Internet systems are used for Internet Protocol (IP) multicast-based data, audio and video distribution. In the U.S., a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) license is required only for the uplink station and no license is required for users. Note that most Internet protocols will not work correctly over one-way access, since they require a return channel. However, Internet content such as web pages can still be distributed over a one-way system by "pushing" them out to local storage at end user sites, though full interactivity is not possible. This is much like TV or radio content which offers little user interface.


System hardware components
Similar to one-way terrestrial return, satellite Internet access may include interfaces to the public switched telephone network for squawk box applications. An Internet connection is not required, but many applications include an File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server to queue data for broadcast.


System software components
Most one-way multicast applications require custom programming at the remote sites. The software at the remote site must filter, store, present a selection interface to and display the data. The software at the transmitting station must provide access control, priority queueing, sending, and encapsulating of the data.

One-way with terrestrial return
One-way terrestrial return satellite Internet systems are used with traditional dial-up access to the Internet, with outbound data traveling through a telephone modem, but downloads sent via satellite at a speed near that of broadband Internet access. In the U.S., an FCC license is required for the uplink station only; no license is required for the users.


System hardware components
The transmitting station (also called "teleport", "head end", "uplink facility", or "hub") has two components:

Internet connection: The ISP's routers connect to proxy servers which can enforce quality of service (QoS) bandwidth limits and guarantees for user traffic. These are then connected to a DVB encapsulator which is then connected to a DVB-S modem. The radio frequency (RF) signal from the DVB-S modem is connected to an up converter which is connected via feed line to the outdoor unit.
Satellite uplink: The block upconverter (BUC) and optional low-noise block converter (LNB), which may use a waveguide to connect to the optional orthomode transducer (OMT) which is bolted to the feed horn which is connected by metal supports to the satellite dish and mount.
At the remote location (Earth station) the setup consists of:

Outdoor unit
Satellite dish with mount
Feedhorn
Universal LNB, for Ku band.
Feed line
Indoor unit
DVB-S Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) card internal to a computer
or, DVB external modem where an 8P8C (RJ-45) Ethernet port or a Universal Serial Bus (USB) port connects the modem to the computer
Depending on the providers terms of contract, one cost effective way to use 1-way satellite internet is to use General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) for the back-channel. By utilizing a 9600 bps (9.6 kbit/s) connection that is offered in standard GPRS, the upload volume is very low and since this service is not per-time charged, users are able to surf and download in broadband speeds. There are companies offering speed up to 24 Mbits. Another view of using GPRS as return would be the mobility when the service is provided by a satellite that transmits in the field of 50 to 53 dBW. Using a 33 cm wide satellite dish, a notebook and a normal GPRS equipped GSM phone, users can get broadband everywhere.


System software components
Remote sites require a minimum of programming to provide authentication and set proxy server settings. Filtering is usually provided by the DVB card driver.

Often, non-standard IP stacks are used to address the latency and asymmetry problems of the satellite connection. Data sent over the satellite link is generally also encrypted, as otherwise it would be accessible to anyone with a satellite receiver.

Many IP-over-satellite implementations use paired proxy servers at both endpoints so that clients and servers do not need to accept the latency inherent in a satellite connection. For similar reasons, there exist special Virtual private network (VPN) implementations designed for use over satellite links because standard VPN software cannot handle the long packet travel times.

Upload speeds are limited by the user's dial-up modem, and latency is high, as it is for any satellite based Internet. Download speeds can be very fast compared to dial-up:1 Mbits,4 Mbits,16 Mbits packages are generally offered.

Wireless

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Wireless Broadband is a fairly new technology that provides high-speed wireless internet and data network access over a wide area.

The Term Broadband
According to the 802.16-2004 standard, broadband means 'having instantaneous bandwidth greater than around 1 MHz and supporting data rates greater than about 1.5 Mbit/s'. This means that Wireless Broadband features speeds roughly equivalent to wired broadband access, such as that of ADSL or a cable modem.

At first, Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISPs) were only found in rural areas not covered by cable or DSL. These early WISPs would receive a large connection, such as a T1 or DS3 connection, and then prodcast signal from a high elevation, such as at the top of a water tower. To receive this type of internet, consumers would mount a small dish to the roof of their home or office and point it to the transmitter. Line of sight was usually necessary for this type of technology, but technologies by Motorola have not adhered to this general rule.

Mobile Wireless Broadband
Now, Wireless Broadband technologies include new services from companies such as Verizon, Sprint, and Cingular, which allow a more mobile version of this broadband access. Consumers can purchase a PC-card, laptop-card, or USB equipment to connect their PC or laptop to the internet via cell-phone towers. This type of connection would be stable in any area that could also receive a strong cell-phone connection.

A wireless connection can be either licensed or unlicensed. In the US, licensed connections use a private spectrum the user has secured rights to from the FCC. In other countries, spectrum is licensed from the country's national radio communications authority (such as the ACMA in Australia). Licensing is usually expensive and often reserved for large companies who wish to guarantee private access to spectrum for use in point to point communication. Because of this, most wireless ISP's use unlicensed spectrum which is publicly shared and therefore more prone to interference.

AOL

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AOL, LLC. (formerly America Online, Inc.) is an American global Internet services and media company operated by Time Warner.

AOL is based in Dulles, Virginia. With regional branches around the world, the former American "goliath among Internet service providers" once had more than 30 million subscribers on several continents. In January 2000, AOL and Time Warner announced plans to merge. The terms of the deal negotiated called for AOL shareholders to own 55% of the new, combined company. The deal closed on January 11, 2001 after receiving regulatory approval from the FTC, the FCC and the European Union.

AOL Time Warner, as the company was then called, was led by executives from both AOL and Time Warner. Gerald Levin, who had served as CEO of Time Warner, was CEO of the new company. Steve Case served as Chairman, J. Michael Kelly (from AOL) was the Chief Financial Officer, Robert W. Pittman (from AOL) and Dick Parsons (from Time Warner) served as Co-Chief Operating Officers. The total value of AOL stock subsequently plummeted from about $226 billion to about $20 billion.

AOL is a company in transition, made evident by discussions of buy-outs and joint ventures during a period of dramatic decline in AOL's subscriber base. News reports in fall 2005 identified companies such as Yahoo!, Microsoft, and Google as candidates for turning AOL into a joint venture; those plans were apparently abandoned when it was revealed on December 20, 2005 that Google would purchase a 5% share of AOL for $1 billion.

In March 31,1997, the short lived eWorld was purchase by AOL forcing the 115,000 user to suscribe to AOL. The ISP side of AOL UK was bought by The Carphone Warehouse in October 2006 to take advantage of their 100,000 LLU's, which makes The Carphone Warehouse the biggest LLU provider in the UK, enabling them to offer broadband at no charge to 90% of their Talk3 customers.

History
AOL began as a short-lived venture called Quantum Computer Services (or QCS), founded by William von Meister. Its sole product was an online service called Gameline for the Atari 2600 video game console after von Meister's idea of buying music on demand was rejected by Warner Brothers. (Klein, 2003) Subscribers bought a modem from the company for $49.95 and paid a one-time $15 setup fee. Gameline permitted subscribers to temporarily download games and keep track of high scores, at a cost of approximately $1 per hour.

In 1983, the company nearly went bankrupt, and an investor in Control Video, Frank Caufield, had a friend of his, Jim Kimsey, brought in as a manufacturing consultant. That same year, Steve Case joined the company as a full-time marketing employee upon the joint recommendations of von Meister and Kimsey. Kimsey went on to become the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the newly renamed Quantum Computer Services in 1985, after von Meister was quietly dropped from the company.

Case himself rose quickly through the ranks; Kimsey promoted him to vice-president of marketing not long after becoming CEO, and later promoted him further to executive vice-president in 1987. Kimsey soon began to groom Case to ascend to the rank of CEO, which he did when Kimsey retired in 1991.

Kimsey changed the company's strategy, and in 1985 launched a sort of mega-BBS for Commodore 64 and 128 computers, originally called Quantum Link ("Q-Link" for short). The Quantum Link software was licensed from PlayNet, Inc. In May 1988, Quantum and Apple launched AppleLink Personal Edition for Apple II and Macintosh computers. After the two companies parted ways in October 1989, Quantum changed the service's name to America Online.In August 1988, Quantum launched PC Link, a service for IBM-compatible PCs developed in a joint venture with the Tandy Corporation.

From the beginning, AOL included online games in its mix of products; many classic and casual games were included in the original PlayNet software system. In the early years of AOL the company introduced many additional innovative online interactive titles and games, including:

Graphical chat environments Habitat (1986-1988) and Club Caribe (1988) from LucasArts,
The first online interactive fiction series QuantumLink Serial by Tracy Reed (1988),
Quantum Space, the first fully automated Play by email game (1989-1991),
The original Dungeons & Dragons title Neverwinter Nights from Stormfront Studios (1991-1997), the first Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG) to depict the adventure with graphics instead of text (1991) and
The first chat room-based text role-playing game Black Bayou (1996-2004), a horror role-playing game from Hecklers Online and ANTAGONIST, Inc.
In February 1991 AOL for DOS was launched using a GeoWorks interface followed a year later by AOL for Windows. In October 1991, Quantum changed its name to America Online. These changes coincided with growth in pay-based BBS services, like Prodigy, CompuServe, and GEnie. AOL discontinued Q-Link and PC Link in the fall of 1994.

Massive growth
Case positioned AOL as the online service for people unfamiliar with computers, in particular contrast to CompuServe, which had long served the technical community. The PlayNet system that AOL licensed was the first online service to require use of proprietary software, rather than a standard terminal program; as a result it was able to offer a graphical user interface (GUI) instead of command lines, and was well ahead of the competition in emphasizing communication among members as a feature.

In particular was the Chat Room concept from PlayNet, as opposed to the previous paradigm of CB-style channels. Chat Rooms allowed a large group of people with similar interests to convene and hold conversations in real time, including:

Private rooms — created by any user. Hold up to 27 people.
Conference rooms — created with permission of AOL. Hold up to 48 people and often moderated.
Auditoriums — created with permission of AOL. Consisted of a stage and an unlimited number of rows. What happened on the stage was viewable by everybody in the auditorium but what happened within individual rows, of up to 27 people, was viewable only by the people within those rows.
There were also text games played in the chat rooms, known as AOL chatroom games.

In March 1994, AOL added access to USENET to the features it offered.

AOL quickly surpassed GEnie, and by the mid-1990s, it passed Prodigy (which for several years allowed AOL advertising) and CompuServe.

Originally, AOL charged its users an hourly fee, but in 1996 this changed and a flat rate of $19.99 a month was charged. Within three years, AOL's userbase grew to 10 million people. During this time, AOL connections would be flooded with users trying to get on, and many canceled their accounts due to constant busy signals. Also, games which used to be paid for with the hourly fee migrated in droves to the Internet.

AOL was quickly running out of room in 1996 for its network at the Vienna, VA campus and moved to Dulles, VA a short distance away. The move to the Dulles took place in 1997 and provided room for future growth.

AOL was relatively late in providing access to the open Internet. Originally, only some Internet features were accessible through a proprietary interface but eventually it became possible to run other Internet software while logged in through AOL. They were the first online service to seamlessly integrate a web browser into content.

AOL introduced the concept of Buddy Lists, leveraging their one-on-one instant messaging technology.
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Verizon

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Verizon Communications, Inc. (NYSE: VZ) is an American broadband and telecommunications company and a component of the Dow 30. It was formed in 2000 when Bell Atlantic, one of the Regional Bell Operating Companies, bought GTE, formerly the largest independent local exchange telephone company in the United States. Prior to its transformation into Verizon, Bell Atlantic had merged with another Regional Bell Operating Company, NYNEX, in 1997. The name is a portmanteau of veritas and horizon.

Creation
The acquisition of GTE by Bell Atlantic, on June 30, 2000, which formed Verizon, was among the largest mergers in United States business history. It was the result of a definitive merger agreement, dated July 27, 1998, between Bell Atlantic, based in New York City since the merger with NYNEX in 1996, and GTE, which was in the process of moving its headquarters from Stamford, Connecticut, to Irving, Texas.

The Bell Atlantic-GTE merger, priced at more than $52 billion at the time of the announcement, closed nearly two years later, following analysis and approvals by Bell Atlantic and GTE shareowners, 27 state regulatory commissions and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and clearance from the United States Department of Justice (DoJ) and various international agencies.

The merger of Bell Atlantic and GTE, to form Verizon Communications, became effective on June 30, 2000, with an exchange ratio of 1.22 shares of Verizon Communications Common Stock for each share of GTE Common Stock owned. Fractional shares resulting from the exchange of GTE stock into Verizon Communications shares were sold at a price of $55.00 per share. Verizon began trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under its new "VZ" symbol on Monday, July 3, 2000.

Meanwhile, on September 21, 1999, Bell Atlantic and UK-based Vodafone AirTouch Plc (now Vodafone Group Plc) announced that they had agreed to create a new wireless business with a national footprint, a single brand and a common digital technology – composed of Bell Atlantic's and Vodafone's U.S. wireless assets (Bell Atlantic Mobile (which was previously called Bell Atlantic-NYNEX Mobile by 1997), AirTouch Cellular, PrimeCo Personal Communications and AirTouch Paging). This wireless joint venture received regulatory approval in six months, and began operations as Verizon Wireless on April 4, 2000, kicking off the new "Verizon" brand name. GTE's wireless operations became part of Verizon Wireless – creating what was initially the nation's largest wireless company before Cingular Wireless acquired AT&T Wireless in 2004 – when the Bell Atlantic-GTE merger closed nearly three months later. Verizon then became the majority owner (55%) of Verizon Wireless.

Genuity was formerly the Internet division of GTE Corp and spun off in 2000.Level 3 Communications acquired the bankrupt ISP in 2002 for only $137 million; a bargain-basement price considering the $616 million that a pre-Bell Atlantic-merger GTE paid for Genuity (then BBN Planet) in 1997.

According to reports, when Bell Atlantic decided to create Verizon, they attempted to register "Verizon Sucks" domain names, and in fact, has registered over 700 domain names, many with the word "sucks" in them, probably to prevent critics from doing so. In response, 2600 magazine registered the domain name "verizonreallysucks.com." Bell Atlantic reportedly sent a cease and desist letter. 2600 Magazine then registered "VerizonShouldSpendMoreTimeFixingItsNetworkAndLessMoneyOnLawyers.com" Bell Atlantic reportedly withdrew its cease and desist letter, and caselaw has come to affirm that "sucks" domain names are generally protected under the US First Amendment.
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AT&T

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About Wireless Services from AT&T, Formerly Cingular
Wireless from AT&T, formerly Cingular Wireless, is the largest wireless company in the United States, with more than 62 million subscribers who use the nation's largest digital voice and data network. AT&T is dedicated to providing customers with wireless technology designed to enrich their lives.


Vision
To be the most highly regarded wireless company in the world, with a driving focus around best-in-class sales and service.

Values
Customers: We value our customers and treat them with respect, providing friendly, courteous, knowledgeable, and prompt service at all touch points. We seek and are driven by our customers' feedback.

Integrity: We operate with unyielding integrity, obeying all laws and adhering to a stringent code of business conduct. We will not tolerate unethical business conduct by our team members.

Performance: We continually raise our performance to exceed customer and shareholder expectations. We strive to be the best wireless company in the world.

Teamwork: We partner with one another�respecting new viewpoints, building trust, enhancing communications, and sharing best practices to deliver world-class products and services.

People: We value our team members and treat them with respect, providing an environment where diverse individuals can develop and are expected to perform to their full potential.

Ownership
AT&T is solely owned by AT&T Inc. (NYSE: T) now that the merger between its former parent companies, AT&T Inc. (formerly SBC) and BellSouth (NYSE: BLS) has closed.

Revenues
Year 2006 revenue was $37.5 billion.

The Wireless Advantage
The country's largest and fastest digital voice and data network�the ALLOVER� Network�which covers the top 100 U.S. markets and more than 273 million people throughout the U.S.
Unlimited calling within the largest mobile-to-mobile calling community�62 million people and growing.
Rollover�, AT&T's exclusive offer on our wireless plans that allow customers to keep their unused Anytime Minutes from month to month.
An unprecedented selection of handsets and devices to meet every need in the U.S and while traveling.
The largest international coverage of any U.S. carrier, giving customers the ability to make calls on 6 continents and 190 countries, with wireless data roaming in over 120 countries for laptops, PDAs, and other data services.
Cutting-edge data products and services and access to exclusive content from the top names in media and entertainment.
The best pay-as-you-go offering with GoPhone�.
A simplified yet comprehensive service summary that spells out exactly what customers are buying and estimated future bills.
Friendly, high-quality service at every AT&T location.
A 30-day, no-questions-asked return policy nationwide lets you test out AT&T service stress-free.

In addition, wireless from AT&T serves 95 percent of the Fortune 100 companies and counts more than 80 percent of the Fortune 500 and more than 1200 federal, state, and local government agencies as customers.

Headquarters
AT&T Mobility
Glenridge Highlands Two
5565 Glenridge Connector
Atlanta, GA 30342

1-800-331-0500
1-866-241-6567 TTY/TDD
AT&T Inc. Headquarters
AT&T Inc.
175 E. Houston St.
San Antonio, TX 78205

Our Technology
The new AT&T offers the largest digital voice and data network in the U.S., including service in all top 100 metropolitan areas. We offer our customers a nationwide GSM/GPRS footprint across 100 percent of our service area.

GSM is the world's most popular wireless phone technology used by more than 1 billion people in 200-plus countries around the world. GSM offers customers unparalleled global roaming capabilities, as well as the truest voice quality in wireless. We also maintain our TDMA network, which continues to provide high-quality voice and data services.

In 2003, Cingular launched the world's first commercial deployment of wireless services using Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) technology. EDGE is a third-generation high-speed mobile data and internet access technology, with average rates that are fast enough to support a wide range of advanced data services, including streaming audio and video, fast Internet access, and large file downloads.

When it comes to technology, AT&T is always looking toward the future. We have launched Universal Mobile Telephone Service in six markets and intend to launch several more in 2005. UMTS is the leading 3G-technology choice today offering potential worldwide coverage and enabling economies of scale, global roaming, and a priority technology for software and applications developers. UMTS is one of the natural forward evolutionary paths for GSM networks.

Where is AT&T located?
Just about everywhere.

AT&T Locations
Headquarters
Atlanta, GA San Antonio, TX

Transaction Processing Center
El Paso, TX
Call Centers
Little Rock, AR
Anaheim Hills, CA
Atwater, CA
Sacramento, CA
Miami, FL
Ocala, FL
Orlando, FL
Atlanta, GA
Cedartown, GA
Rantoul, IL
Paramus, NJ
Greensboro, NC
Schaumburg, IL
Springfield, IL
Ashland, KY
Baton Rouge, LA
Lafayette, LA
Ocean Springs, MS
Fayetteville, NC
Harrisburg, PA
Oklahoma City, OK
Tulsa, OK
Ridgeland, MS
Bloomington, MN
Johnson City, TN
Memphis, TN
Austin, TX
Dallas, TX
Lubbock, TX
Midland, TX
Wichita Falls, TX
Lebanon, VA
Bothell, WA
Cerritos, CA
Portland, OR
Mililani, HI

At&T foot print : Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Texas, Connecticut, California and Nevada. Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, and South Carolina

Telesales Centers
Birmingham, AL Jacksonville, FL Nashville, TN
Retail Locations
AT&T has retail locations in approximately 45 states and Puerto Rico.
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BellSouth

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BellSouth Corporation was an American telecommunications holding company based in Atlanta, Georgia. BellSouth was one of the seven original Regional Bell Operating Companies after the U.S. Department of Justice forced the American Telephone & Telegraph Company to divest itself of its regional telephone companies on January 1, 1984.

In a merger announced on March 5, 2006 and executed on December 29, 2006, AT&T Inc. acquired BellSouth for approximately $86 billion (1.325 shares of AT&T for each share of BellSouth). The combined company retained the name AT&T. The merger consolidated ownership of Cingular Wireless and YELLOWPAGES.COM, both of which were joint ventures between BellSouth and AT&T.
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Road Runner

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Road Runner a.k.a RoadRunner HIGH SPEED ONLINE is a nationwide Internet service provider (ISP) focused on providing service over DOCSIS-compatible cable modems. It is a division of Time Warner Inc. and provides service throughout the footprint of Time Warner Cable as well as other contracting cable companies. Its services are currently available only in the United States, but were once also offered in Newfoundland, Canada.

Road Runner often competes with ISPs owned by local telephone companies. Its mascot is Road Runner from the Looney Tunes/Merrie Melodies series. When the service first launched with a 1995 market test in Elmira, NY, it was called the Southern Tier On-Line Community,then LineRunner (a moniker that was later used for VOIP service), before Time Warner Cable adopted the current brand name.

To compete directly with less expensive DSL service, Road Runner offers a lower bandwidth package dubbed Road Runner Lite or Road Runner Intro for a similar cost, with lower download and upload bandwidth. The specific speeds vary, but the averge is 768 kbit/s download and 128 kbit/s upload bandwidth. This tier of service is not heavily promoted and must be specifically requested when ordering.

Companies offering Road Runner
Time Warner Cable
Bright House Networks
Insight Communications
Urban CableWorks
AOL through their broadband service
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Time Warner Cable

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Time Warner Inc. is a leading media and entertainment company, whose businesses include interactive services, cable systems, filmed entertainment, television networks and publishing.

Whether measured by quality, popularity or financial results, our divisions are at the top of their categories. AOL, Time Inc., Time Warner Cable, Home Box Office, New Line Cinema, Turner Broadcasting System and Warner Bros. Entertainment maintain unrivaled reputations for creativity and excellence as they keep people informed, entertained and connected.

Our enterprise is more than a collection of great brands that are owned under one roof. Time Warner’s businesses strive to gain competitive advantage from opportunities for constructive collaboration.

We are innovators in technology, products and services. Our digital products and services reinforce the company’s industry-leading brands on all platforms with a focus on growth, engagement and monetization. Among Time Warner's digital initiatives are: Warner Bros.' Studio 2.0, Digital Cinema, Total Hi-Def disc as well as multiple digital downloading and VOD distribution agreements; AOL Video, AOL Music, AIM, MapQuest and Moviefone; HBO on Demand and AT&T mobile devices; Time Warner Cable's enhanced digital video applications, Road Runner High Speed Online and Digital Phone services; Time Inc.'s People.com, SI.com and Time.com; Turner Broadcasting's CNN.com, TCM.com, CartoonNetwork.com, TheSmokingGun.com, superdeluxe.com, AdultSwim.com, Veryfunnyads.com, NASCAR.com, pga.com and GameTap; and joint initiatives like In2TV and TMZ.com from AOL and Warner Bros. as well as CNNMoney.com from Time Inc. and Turner.

Most important, our people’s leadership at every level — their creativity, talent and commitment to excellence — ensures that Time Warner continues to provide the high-performance service, trustworthy information and enjoyable entertainment our audiences, members and customers expect.
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Comcast

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Comcast Corporation, (NASDAQ: CMCSA) based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is the largest cable company and the second largest Internet service provider in the United States. Comcast now serves a total of 24.2 million cable customers, 13.3 million digital cable customers, 12.1 million high-speed internet customers, and 3.0 million voice customers. They develop broadband cable networks and are involved in electronic retailing and television programming content. The company employs over 90,000 people.

History
Comcast was founded in 1963 by Ralph J. Roberts, Daniel Aaron, Edward Rex and Julian A. Brodsky in Tupelo, Mississippi. The company was incorporated in Pennsylvania in 1969, under the name Comcast Corporation from American Cable Systems. Moving into the area of programming content, Comcast became majority owner of Comcast-Spectacor, Comcast SportsNet (in Chicago, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C./Baltimore, metro Sacramento, California, Detroit, and Houston ), E! Entertainment Television, Style Network, G4, The Golf Channel and Versus (formerly known as Outdoor Life Network) over a period of years. In 2006, Comcast started a new sports channel in cooperation with Major League Baseball's New York Mets in the greater New York City region.

Comcast also has a variety network known as CN8, or the Comcast Network, available exclusively to Comcast and Cablevision subscribers. The channel shows news, sports, and entertainment and places emphasis in Philadelphia, New England, and the Baltimore/Washington, D.C. areas, though the channel is also available in New York, Pittsburgh, and Richmond. In August of 2004 Comcast started a channel called CET (Comcast Entertainment Television). It is only available to Colorado Comcast subscribers. It focuses on Life in Colorado. It also carries some NHL & NBA Games when Altitude Sports & Entertainment is carrying the NBA or NHL. In January of 2006 CET became the primary channel for Colorado's Emergency Alert System in the Denver Metro Area.

The UK division was sold to NTL in 1998. After the sale of their cellular division to SBC Communications of San Antonio and the acquisition of Greater Philadelphia Cablevision in 1999, Comcast and MediaOne announced a $60 billion merger which did not occur until three years later.

In 2002, Comcast paid the University of Maryland $25 million for naming rights to the new basketball arena built on the College Park campus, named Comcast Center.

On January 3, 2005, Comcast announced that it would build the Comcast Center, not to be confused with the Maryland arena mentioned above. The 975 ft skyscraper will be the tallest building in Philadelphia when it is completed in late 2007.

In December 2005, Comcast announced the creation of Comcast Interactive Media (CIM), a new division focused on online media.

High Speed Internet Service
Comcast, the largest cable provider in the United States, offers downstream speeds of 4, 6, or 8 Mbit/s and upstream speeds of 384 kbit/s (48 kB/s), or 768 kbit/s (96 kB/s) for the 8 Mbit/s downstream package, for standard home connections. In some areas, they are offering 16 Mbit/s downstream and 1 Mbit/s (125 kB/s) upstream as a more expensive, yet speedier alternative; or to keep customers from switching to Verizon's FiOS. These differing speed options are made possible by loading a particular configuration file into the modem. Comcast's PowerBoost technology delivers bursts of 12 to 16 Mbit/s downstream and 1 to 2 Mbit/s upstream with their 6 and 8 Mbit/s packages, respectively.

According to the Comcast High Speed Internet terms of service, customers are provided with dynamic IP addresses. Comcast has not admitted to implementing a traffic shaping policy that can interfere with Voice over IP or online gaming applications. Comcast has a policy of terminating broadband customers who allegedly use excessive bandwidth. Comcast has declined to disclose a numerical bandwidth limit, arguing that the limit is variable on a monthly basis and dependent on the capacity of specific cable nodes. Comcast claims this policy only affects users whose bandwidth consumption is among the top one percent of high-speed internet customers. Statements issued by Comcast in response to press inquiries suggest that excessive usage is generally defined as several hundred gigabytes per month. However, their terms of service state that a customer's use should not "represent (in the sole judgment of Comcast) an overly large burden on the network." In actual practice the amount that is considered excessive usage varies by location and can be as low as a few hundred GB if a customer is in a low usage location.

Available in these states: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Washington DC, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming.
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HughesNet

View all HughesNet broadband plans.









HughesNet is the high-speed Internet solution that's available to everyone in the contiguous U.S. with a clear view of the southern sky. HughesNet uses satellite technology to give you a super-fast, always-on Internet connection—so you can enjoy the Internet the way it was meant to be. HughesNet gets you online instantly, lets you surf and open pages faster and download files in a fraction of the time it takes a dial-up modem.

How does it work?

HughesNet delivers high-speed Internet over satellite—not over your telephone line—so you can surf and talk at the same time. A certified HughesNet installer will connect your computer to a satellite modem and link it to a satellite dish (antenna) that’s typically mounted on the roof of your home. The satellite dish sends and receives information (i.e., email, Web pages, files) over the Internet and delivers it your computer almost instantly!

HughesNet is brought to you by HUGHES, the leading provider of broadband satellite network solutions for consumers, businesses, and government. For over 30 years, Hughes has delivered satellite products and services around the world, with more than 800,000 systems ordered or shipped to customers in 85 countries. Hughes pioneered the development of high-speed satellite Internet services, which it markets globally under the HughesNet brand.

HughesNet (formerly DirecWay) is the brand name of the one-way and two-way satellite broadband Internet technology and service in U.S. and Europe owned by Hughes Network Systems. The service was originally called DirecPC and was only available as a one-way satellite Internet option (uploading was accomplished with a dial-up modem connection). The original consumer DirecPC service launched in October 1996.

Technology
HughesNet (then DirecWay) satellite Internet systems used to require both a home PC along with a special DirecWay-compatible USB modem. The original dial-up return (one-way) system used a single USB modem, while the satellite return (two-way) system used to use a special dual USB modem that interfaces with the subscriber's computer. The DW3000 USB modem were once used with one-way setups, while DW4000 USB were used on existing two-way customers' systems.

The DW6000 and DW7000 modems are newer products that have several major improvements over the older DW4000, including automatic software upgrades over the network, a smaller box, an ethernet connection instead of the USB interface, and it hosts an IP router.

The HughesNet satellite Internet system uses FSS-type Ku band satellites for transmission of data from the HughesNet network operations center's Internet connection to its customers' personal computers. In contrast, competitor WildBlue uses Ka band transmission.

HughesNet sales associates claim there is an FCC requirement to be "2-way microwave transmission" certified to install a 2-way satellite setup. This is true, but not actively enforced. The FCC recommends that you become trained in the proper methods of pointing a 2-way dish under 2 watts. Above that, you need a license to operate 2-way satellite. HughesNet systems are typically 1 watt, however some are 2 watts or 4 watts depending upon the upstream maximum data rate and class of service.
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Name Price
(per month)
Download
Speed
Upload
Speed
Download
Limit
AOL
AOL High Speed Essentials
10 hours of back-up dial-up access Premium security software Up to $10,000 identity theft insurance coverage 24/7 live technical support
$9.95 56 kbps 56 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
Verizon
Starter Plan
One Year Agreement. Good for downloading photos and work files from home.
$14.99 764 kbps 128 kbps Unlimited
AT&T
Basic DSL
Get Basic DSL at even a lower price! Select the Order Now button to see if you qualify. Includes nationwide dial-up access, surf safely with our all-in-one security suite.
$19.95 768 kbps 128 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
BellSouth
FastAccess DSL Lite
Great for frequent web surfing.
$19.95 768 kbps 128 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
Verizon
Power Plan
One Year Agreement. Great for downloading movies or music.
$19.99 3000 kbps 768 kbps Unlimited
AT&T
Express DSL
Best for surfing the Internet, checking email, instant messaging, and shopping online.
$25.00 1500 kbps 128 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
Road Runner
High Speed
You now have a choice to go even faster with our premium level of service. With speeds as fast as 8.0 Mbps down, you can move at the cutting edge of todays technology. So no matter how fast you want to go, Road Runner lets you get the most of your time online. You'll have access to free or discounted rates on some of the world's best news, entertainment and sports!
$25.95 8000 kbps 128 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
AOL
High Speed
You now have a choice to go even faster with our premium level of service. With speeds as fast as 8.0 Mbps down, you can move at the cutting edge of todays technology. So no matter how fast you want to go, Road Runner lets you get the most of your time online. You'll have access to free or discounted rates on some of the world's best news, entertainment and sports!
$29.95 8000 kbps 128 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
Time Warner Cable
High Speed
You now have a choice to go even faster with our premium level of service. With speeds as fast as 8.0 Mbps down, you can move at the cutting edge of todays technology. So no matter how fast you want to go, Road Runner lets you get the most of your time online. You'll have access to free or discounted rates on some of the world's best news, entertainment and sports!
$29.95 8000 kbps 128 kbps Unlimited
AT&T
Pro DSL
Best for online multi-use, games, downloading music and video files. Recommended for wireless home networking solutions
$30.00 3000 kbps 128 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
BellSouth
FastAccess DSL Ultra
Great for downloading photos and music.
$32.95 1500 kbps 256 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
Comcast
High-Speed Internet for Non-Comcast Cable Customers
Stop crawling the web and start burning rubber with scorching speeds up to 4 times faster than 1.5 Mbps DSL, up to 7 times faster than 768 Kbps DSL, and up to 100 times faster than 56 Kbps dial-up! You’ll get free tools like McAfee® security software to keep all your info and computer safe. And with Comcast.net, you’ll get amazing free content and features like The Fan™ Video Player, your one-stop source for the best online video.
$33.00 6000 kbps 128 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
Comcast
High-Speed Internet for Current Comcast Cable Customers
Stop crawling the web and start burning rubber with scorching speeds up to 4 times faster than 1.5 Mbps DSL, up to 7 times faster than 768 Kbps DSL, and up to 100 times faster than 56 Kbps dial-up! And now with PowerBoost™, our fast connection gets even faster, with an extra burst of speed up to 12 Mbps when you’re downloading large files like videos and games. You’ll also get free tools like McAfee® security software to keep all your info and computer safe. And with Comcast.net, you’ll get amazing free content and features like The Fan™ Video Player, your one-stop source for the best online video.
$33.00 6000 kbps 128 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
AT&T
Elite DSL
Best for online multi-use, maximum gaming, uploading digital pictures, and streaming video.
$35.00 6000 kbps 128 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
BellSouth
FastAccess DSL XTREME
Great for online gaming and streaming video Home Networking available at no charge ($5 per month value) Free Wi-fi Basic ($1.99 per month value).
$37.95 3000 kbps 384 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
Verizon
Month to Month Plan
No Commitment Required. Browse the Internet with a high-speed connection, Email and chat with your friends and family. Shop and pay your bills. Play online games and more.
$37.99 3000 kbps 768 kbps Unlimited
BellSouth
FastAccess DSL XTREME 6.0
Our fastest Internet connection Home Networking and Internet Security Suite available at no charge ($10 per month value) Free Wi-fi Basic ($1.99 per month value)
$42.95 6000 kbps 512 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
HughesNet
Home
Home Satellite Broadband.
$59.99 700 kbps 128 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
Verizon
Wireless BroadbandAccess Card
Get started with a BroadbandAccess Device. Purchase a BroadbandAccess device and activate a $59.99 BroadbandAccess Plan to connect to our high-speed wireless broadband network. Verizon Wireless offers the three most commonly used interface types for the BroadbandAccess service: • Standard Type II card slot Typically found on most Windows notebooks • ExpressCard/34 card slot Found on some newer Windows and Mac notebooks • Universal Serial Bus (USB) Found on most computers today
$59.99 1400 kbps 800 kbps 5 GB
HughesNet
Pro
Pro Satellite Broadband.
$69.99 1000 kbps 200 kbps Unlimited Buy Now
HughesNet
ProPlus
ProPlus Satellite Broadband.
$79.99 1500 kbps 200 kbps Unlimited Buy Now

What is broadband?

There are many descriptions for broadband.

Broadband in telecommunications is a term which refers to a signaling method which includes or handles a relatively wide range of frequencies which may be divided into channels or frequency bins. Broadband is always a relative term, understood according to its context. The wider the bandwidth, greater is the information carrying capacity. In radio, for example, a very narrow-band signal will carry Morse code; a broader band will carry speech; a still broader band is required to carry music without losing the high audio frequencies required for realistic sound reproduction. A television antenna described as "normal" may be capable of receiving a certain range of channels; one described as "broadband" will receive more channels. In data communications a modem will transmit a bandwidth of 64 kilobits per seconds (kbit/s) over a telephone line; over the same telephone line a bandwidth of several megabits per second can be handled by ADSL, which is described as broadband (relative to a modem over a telephone line, although much less than can be achieved over a fibre optic circuit, for example). With Cable Broadband there is a higher chance of maintaining a constant broadband speed compared to ADSL services.

Broadband in data communications may have the same meaning as above, so that data transmission over a fiber optic
Broadband is high-speed, always-on Internet access It is now up to 160 times faster than a standard dial-up connection
It keeps your phone line free meaning you can use the phone while you're online Broadband means no additional call charges so you can use the Internet as much as you want, whenever you want, for one low flat monthly fee.
It's easy to install - once you've registered you will receive a broadband router and simple detailed instructions on how to set this up on your PC or notebook
Broadband is the new way to use the Internet! You can shop and bank online instantly, download music and games in seconds, email large attachments, watch music and film clips and much more!

Broadband is a way to telecommunicate that includes a signaling method that incorporates a wide range of frequencies, that are able to be separated into channels or what they called frequency bits. The Broadband is able to carry frequencies that allow communications via the Internet, TV and Radio. Though the frequencies vary, the concept is still the same. The more bandwidth there is, the more information can be transmitted. So bandwidth is very important.

For example, when you are using a radio, they will have a narrow band signal that actually carries Morse code, the broader band can carry audio and even a broader band has to be carried so that music can be heard without losing any parts of the music that may compromise the sound of the music itself.

Now a TV antenna used to be the normal way to watch TV, they can pick up some frequencies but by using cable TV the band is much wider and there are thousands of frequencies that can be picked up. With the Internet or data transmissions, those can be sent through the phone line via DSL or dial up, but they are limited to the amount of frequencies. But with a cable modem, the concept works like the TV, if you use cable you will expand the amount of frequencies you can access, thereby giving you a better connection.

If you ever hear that term Broadband again, you will know what it does and why it is better to have than standard old fashioned means of telecommunications.


How much data do I use?
Some ballpark figures for typical internet use.

Activity
Typical data use
Plain text emails

Text only email
1KB
1000 text emails
1MB
Emails with attachments

Email with 5-page Word attachment
200KB
Email with spreadsheet attachment
500KB
Email with 3-4 photo attachments
300KB
General web surfing

Average webpage
75KB
40 pages in one hour
3MB/hour
Intensive web surfing

80 pages per hour, rich in photos
6-10MB/hour
Digital music (eg, MP3s)

Song - low quality
3MB
Song - high quality
6MB
Streaming (live) audio

Listening to music
40MB/hour
Streaming (live) video

Watching video (small window)
15MB/hour
Conversions:

1B (byte) = 8 bits
1KB (kilobyte) = 1024B (bytes)
1MB (megabyte) = 1024KB (kilobytes)

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